This revision of the successful text draws on the latest research in all areas of the field, including biology and biochemistry, neurology, psychology, and sociology. Presenting the concepts of ``motivation'' and ``emotion'' as related aspects of the same general phenomena, it examines the basic biological and physiological systems underlying motivational and emotional responses, emphasizing how these interact with cognitive and other ``higher order'' processes. This background is applied to a series of specific types of motives and behavior patterns, such as aggression, sexuality, emotional expression, and competence. Goes on to examine the interaction between cognitive and physiological factors, leading to a discussion of the central theme of the book: that increasingly complex social influences have, in the course of human evolution, liberated most human behavior from direct biological/physiological control. This thoroughly revised and updated edition includes coverage of studies on the human brain via radioactive elements, a section on the facial feedback hypothesis, and an expanded treatment of the implications of right-versus-left hemisphere research. Also provides a critical review of psychosurgery and physiological control, including a discussion of the CIA's involvement in this area, an examination of the effect of erotic films on aggressive behavior, and much more.