The basic properties of solitons are introduced here using examples from macroscopic physics (e.g. blood pressure pulses and fibre optical communications). The book then presents the main theoretical methods before discussing applications from solid state or atomic physics such as dislocations, excitations in spin chains, conducting polymers, ferroelectrics and Bose-Einstein condensates. Examples are also taken from biological physics and include energy transfer in proteins and DNA fluctuations. Throughout the book the authors emphasize a new approach to modelling nonlinearities in physics.