Ever since 1911, the Solvay Conferences have shaped modern physics. The 24th edition chaired by Bertrand Halperin did not break the tradition. Held in October 2008, it gathered in Brussels many of the leading figures in the quantum theory of condensed matter , addressing some of the most profound open problems in the field. The proceedings contain the "rapporteur talks" giving a broad overview with unique insights by distinguished renowned scientists. These lectures cover the five sessions treating: mesoscopic and disordered systems; exotic phases and quantum phase transitions in model systems; experimentally realized correlated-electron materials; quantum Hall systems, and one-dimensional systems; systems of ultra-cold atoms, and advanced computational methods. In the Solvay tradition, the proceedings include also the prepared comments to the rapporteur talks. The discussions among the participants some of which are quite lively and involving dramatically divergent points of view have been carefully edited and reproduced in full.