Messages such as ads, speeches, news stories, school curricula, or even remarks made in a conversation, have distinct properties or effects. The study of these effects and their reporting as generalized claims is a primary task of communication research. In this fascinating and controversial new work, Sally Jackson critiques the methodology behind such claims and lays the groundwork for a methodological alternative. Central to this is the notion that methodology must be tailored to the special characteristics of a field's objects of study. To shape the methodology, she argues, it is necessary to examine the kinds of claims the researcher wishes to make and the threats to validity that affect such claims.