Music, whether performed or heard, has been seen as therapeutic in the history of many cultures. This volume explores how its therapeutic properties have been conceptualized and explained; which cultures have used music therapy; the various aims and techniques; and the level of continuity between ancient, medieval and modern practice. The essays focus on the place of music therapy in European intellectual, medical and musical traditions, from their classical roots to the development of the music therapy profession since World War II. Chapters covering the Judaic, Islamic, Indian and South-East Asian traditions add global, comparative perspectives. The book as a whole is intended to establish the whole shape of the history of music therapy in a ststematic and scholarly way. It addresses the problem of defining what music therapy has meant in different cultures and periods, and sets the agenda for future research in the subject.