Now in a thoroughly revised and expanded third edition, this bestselling text provides a comprehensive framework for the direct assessment of academic skills. Presented is a readily applicable, four-step approach for working with students experiencing a range of difficulties with reading, spelling, written language, or math. School-based practitioners are guided sequentially through assessment of the instructional environment, assessment of instructional placement, instructional modification, and progress monitoring. Extensively rewritten to reflect current findings and best practices, the third edition includes information on useful Internet resources, updated sample forms and charts, and all-new case illustrations. Available separately is a newly revised companion workbook, containing helpful practice exercises and reproducible forms.