Kurztext During the past half century the world human population has shifted from being localised mainly to rural areas to a situation where more than 50 % live in urban areas. This development has led to conflicts between continued urban expansion on the one hand and the maintenance of urban green space for biodiversity on the other. This work shows that green spaces are crucial for urban biodiversity as well as to the life quality and health of urban dwellers. The reason is that urban nature is an important arena for physical and social activities, relaxation and tranquillity. Existing green spaces should thus be protected, and if necessary be restored for example by converting hard-surfaced areas to green spaces. As it can be expected urban populations will increase even further in the future, the importance of urban nature will thus increase. This book, therefore, is essential for urban planners. And, as an interdisciplinary approach is applied, i.e. natural science and social and political sciences, the text should also be useful for a wide range of students in the physical planning field, e.g. architect or landscape architect students, as well as biologist students.