This pioneering volume provides the first comprehensive treatment of the latest research on oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses in all types of aerobic organisms. Unlike existing books which concentrate on oxidative stress in humans and other mammals, this unique book investigates oxidative stress in prokaryotes, protists, plants, fungi, vertebrates, and invertebrates, stimulating cross-fertilization among diverse fields. In addition, it explains the basic science of oxygen activation and oxidative stress as a foundation for more advanced material, making this book a valuable resource for both specialists and non-specialists. Topics discussed include: * conversion of oxygen into reactive oxygen species (ROS), as well as reactions involving carbon-centered free radicals, antioxidant molecules, and the oxoferryl complex * ROS-mediated pathologies, from microvascular injury to atherosclerosis to cancer * mechanisms and benefits of ROS production in plants, with attention to conditions of nitrogen fixation * effects of manmade prooxidants found in drugs,pesticides, and environmental pollutants such as mercury and dioxins * metabolic resistance to naturally occurring prooxidants, antioxidant enzymes and proteins, and antioxidant molecules found in natural substances, with kinetics and rate constants for various interactions between ROS and antioxidants * complex genetic responses to ROS-mediated stress, using research on E. coli and S. typhimurium. Integrating a wide range of research, this outstanding book gives a broad and in-depth perspective on current progress in our understanding of oxidative stress. Biochemists and biologists in medicine, toxicology, ecology, entomology, plant science, microbiology, and mycology will benefit from this accessible and insightful treatment of the subject.